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Obesity which is also known as being overweight is a disease developed for high-fat accumulation. Obesity is accepted as the disease of the 21st century and it has been accepted among the 10 riskiest diseases by the World Health Organization. This disease affects multiple organs in the body and it is considered as an important problem that might lead to irregular organ functioning as well as associated diseases. While there are prevention methods against obesity, there are also various treatment options.
What is obesity?
Obesity is a diagnosis to individuals with body mass index 30 or higher and higher daily energy intake than consumption. This disease that significantly limits the lives of people decreases life quality and leads to various health problems means a high amount of fat accumulation on the body.
In obesity diagnosis, body mass index and waist measurements are taken. The body mass index is measured by dividing the body weight to the square of body height. This value is calculated independent of age and gender; as a result, individuals are classified as underweight, normal weight, obese and morbidly obese. Body mass index values determined by the World Health Organization are as follows:
BMI less than 18.5 are underweight
BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 are normal weight
BMI between 25 and 29.9 are overweight
BMI between 30 and 34.9 are class 1 obesity
BMI between 35 and 39.9 are class 2 obesity
BMI 40 or higher are class 3 morbid obese
BMI 50 or higher are super obese.
In obesity symptoms, the location of the fat is as important as the fat amount. If the fat around the belly is more than the fat in other parts, it is possible to talk about obesity. Therefore, the waist measurement is necessary for correct diagnosis.
What are the reasons for obesity?
The most common reason for obesity is eating disorders. Additionally, genetic factors, brain tumours, changes in hormone levels and materials segregated from the brain, lifestyle, environmental factors, physical inactivity, regular use of certain medication, mental disorders, other psychologic problems, eating excessively fatty food might lead to the development of obesity.
What are the obesity risk factors?
Some risk factors might lead to obesity. Generally, if you have these genetic factors, you are probably under risk. If you have one or more of these risk factors below, you must take precautions against this disease.
Lack of physical activity
Children in adolescence
Poor eating habits
Quitting smoking and eating more
Low education level
High number of childbirth
Metabolic or hormonal disorders
Studies proved that the risk for women is higher than men for obesity.
Obesity treatment methods
Multiple doctors must work together for an obesity diagnosis. Individuals with this disease must be examined by endocrine specialists, nutritionist, psychiatry specialists, training consultants and physical therapist. When needed, patients might be examined by cardiologist, chest disease specialist and general surgery specialist Before obesity diagnosis, body mass index and waist measurements are taken. Then, blood pressure, blood sugar and fasting glucose levels are measures. Necessary blood tests and urine tests are conducted to measure fat level in blood. Liver, kidney and thyroid function tests are conducted. With these tests and examination, other symptoms are diagnosed.
These patients are examined in great detail due to other associated health problems that might emerge. Majority of the obesity patients experience high blood sugar, high blood pressure, coronary diseases, respiratory problems, sleep apnoea, extreme fatigue, stress, hormonal disorders and digestive disorders.
Obesity patients fail to lose weight with appropriate diet and sport and they even experience weight gain. After this disease and other health problems are properly diagnosed, suitable treatment is selected. There are multiple treatment options for this disease.
Obesity patients have a special diet treatment program based on their general health status and daily calorie needs. Patients are encouraged to lose weight properly with this program. During treatment, patients are under regular control and diet program is updated regularly.
Obesity patients might increase respiratory problems, tachycardia, exhaustion when they are doing exercise. These problems cause the patient to quit sports. After a diagnosis of the disease, activities such as water gymnastics, swimming and walking are planned with a physiotherapist. With these exercise programs, patients are encouraged to do sports for at least 3 days and 45 minutes per day and to lose weight.
There is no medication for obesity under current circumstances. But if patients are experiencing metabolic problems such as insulin resistance or other diseases, medication can be used to eliminate these diseases.
This is a treatment method applied for patients who cannot lose weight with long-term diet, medication and sports. This treatment is applied to patients with class 2 or higher obesity. The purpose of obesity surgery is to lose weight in a surgical way if the weight loss is not possible with diet and sport and to have a fit body form. In this surgical method, there are sleeve gastrectomy, gastric sleeve, gastric balloon, gastric bypass and robotic surgery. The treatment method is selected after examination and tests.
Stomach Botox is a non-surgical method that can be completed in 15 minutes with a special needle. Stomach Botox will not lead to time or work lose and patients can go back to work after 30 minutes.
You can visit our FAQs in Bariatric Surgery page to answer all your questions about bariatric surgery.